1) The structure principle of binoculars:
Binoculars have two prism structures, PORRO prism and ROOF prism:
PORRO prism has high transmittance and good imaging quality, but it is bulky and inconvenient to carry;
The ROOF prism structure is similar to the naked eye in terms of distance, stereoscopic vision, and size, and is light in size, but the manufacturing cost is higher.
In terms of Applicable Scenarios:
Generally, telescopes with PORRO prism structure are suitable for military and harsh environments;
The ROOF prism is suitable for watching the scenery, observing animals, etc., but this also varies from person to person.
The main components of binoculars are eyepieces, prisms, objective lenses, the connecting part of the two lens barrels, and the zoom system. Here we will mainly introduce the main eyepieces, prisms, objective lenses, and zoom systems.
Eyepiece: It is a lens close to the eye. Its main function is to magnify the image, maintain the parallel light of the telescope, and achieve a good observation effect.
Prism: In the middle of the telescope, its function is mainly to form an upright image formed by the telescope during observation. We are naturally accustomed to looking at the scene upright. Prism is essential for binoculars and monocular viewing telescopes.
Objective lens: It is a lens close to the scene. Its function is mainly used to focus light to observe the scene. The larger the diameter of the objective lens, the stronger the ability to collect light.
Zoom system: divided into fixed zoom and no zoom. Without zoom, you can instantly magnify the magnification, and you can also reduce the magnification to see the scene, and you can zoom in and zoom out.
(2) The structure principle of astronomical telescope:
The working principle of the astronomical telescope is mainly that the objective lens gathers light for imaging, and the eyepiece is used for magnification.
Its structure is more complicated than that of binoculars. Stability and balance are very important. The heavy hammer, fine-tuning handwheel, and tripod are mainly used for balance and stability, for better observation.
Astronomical telescopes are divided into three types: refracting, reflective, and refracting. They have the following characteristics:
1. Refractor astronomical telescope
It uses a convex lens as an objective lens, a concave-convex lens as an eyepiece, and a telescope that uses refractive imaging, using an optical structure from the objective lens to the eyepiece. It is the mainstream entry-level telescope.
Advantages: wide field of view, better contrast and clarity, and easy portability.
Disadvantages: There will be some chromatic aberration and spherical aberration. In comparison, the larger diameter is more expensive than the smaller one.
2. Reflective astronomical telescope
The spherical reflector and the concave paraboloid enter the lens together, and collect the light reflected from the plane mirror of the secondary mirror to the eyepiece to observe the stars. The optical structure from the reflector to the secondary mirror to the eyepiece is adopted.
Advantages: The aperture is relatively large, the imaging brightness is high, and the price is relatively affordable.
Disadvantages: There will be a little spherical aberration, the maintenance of the lens barrel will be more difficult, and it is not easy to carry.
3. Reverse astronomical telescope
Combining the characteristics of refraction and reflection, the light of celestial bodies will be refracted and reflected together. A corrective mirror-to-mirror optical structure is used.
Advantages: large aperture, good imaging effect, easy maintenance and easy portability.
Disadvantages: The structure is relatively complex and the price is high.